Database management is a method for managing the data that is used to support a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users and editing it as required, monitoring data changes, and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is a component of the informational infrastructure of a company that supports decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which enabled the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a broad range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of attributes, or fields, that represent facts about data entities. The most popular type of database today is a relational model, designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the need to change several databases.

Most DBMSs can support various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational concerns like the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of external views based on different data models. It could include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.